Forty-nine states have responded by developing prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs), which digitally store controlled substance dispensing information and make those data accessible to prescribers, pharmacies, and law enforcement officials.Although PDMPs are designed to curb opioid overprescribing, prescriber utilization is low.The median PDMP registration rate among licensed prescribers who issue at least 1 controlled substance prescription is 35%.

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Taking into consideration the input from our stakeholders, CBP has implemented a staggered approach to the mandatory filing of electronic entries and corresponding entry summaries in ACE, and the decommissioning of electronic entry/entry summary filing capabilities in the Automated Commercial System (ACS).

CBP published a Federal Register Notice (FRN) on February 29, 2016 (81 FR 10264) advising the trade community that ACE is the sole electronic data interchange (EDI) system authorized by the Commissioner of CBP for processing certain electronic entry and entry summary filings, as of the effective date of the notice.

CBP also published an FRN on May 16, 2016 (81 FR 30320) advising the trade community that effective June 15, 2016, ACE is the sole CBP-authorized EDI system for the processing of certain electronic entry and entry summary filings accompanied by data for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

This Viewpoint describes the benefits of, evidence behind, and prescriber concerns with mandates, and recommends policies that may increase effective use of prescription drug monitoring programs.

The United States is in the midst of a prescription opioid overdose and abuse epidemic.

The rate of fatal prescription drug overdoses involving opioids almost quadrupled from 1.4 deaths/100 000 people in 1999 to 5.4 deaths/100 000 people in 2011.

The rate of emergency department visits involving prescription drug misuse—primarily of opioid, antianxiety, and insomnia medications—more than doubled from 214 visits/100 000 people in 2004 to 458 visits/100 000 people in 2011.

The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit per course.

Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.